Antiviral activity of proanthocyanidin against feline calicivirus used as a surrogate for noroviruses, and coxsackievirus used as a representative enteric virus

Biocontrol Sci. 2009 Sep;14(3):107-11. doi: 10.4265/bio.14.107.


Proanthocyanidin, which consists of (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and their gallates (15%), (-) epicatechin gallate-dimers, -trimers, and -tetramers (80%), and (-) epicatechin gallate-pentamers, -hexamers, and -heptamers (5%), was evaluated for its antiviral activity against feline calicivirus F9 strain (FCV/F9), which is thought to be a surrogate for noroviruses, and coxsackievirus A7 strain (Cox.A7), which was selected as a representative enteric virus. To achieve a viral inactivation rate of 99% or greater after contact for 10 sec., at least 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml of proanthocyanidin were required against FCV/F9 and Cox.A7, respectively. Although the antiviral mechanism of proanthocyanidin is not clear at present, proanthocyanidin may be an effective disinfectant against enteroviruses such as noroviruses.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / chemistry
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Calicivirus, Feline / drug effects*
  • Calicivirus, Feline / pathogenicity
  • Cats
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral / drug effects
  • Enterovirus / drug effects*
  • Enterovirus / pathogenicity
  • Humans
  • Norovirus / drug effects
  • Norovirus / pathogenicity
  • Proanthocyanidins / chemistry
  • Proanthocyanidins / pharmacology*
  • Vero Cells


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Proanthocyanidins