Zika virus outside Africa

Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Sep;15(9):1347-50. doi: 10.3201/eid1509.090442.


Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aedes / virology
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging* / epidemiology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging* / physiopathology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging* / transmission
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging* / virology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Insect Vectors / virology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Micronesia / epidemiology
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • Zika Virus Infection / epidemiology*
  • Zika Virus Infection / physiopathology
  • Zika Virus Infection / transmission*
  • Zika Virus* / classification
  • Zika Virus* / genetics
  • Zika Virus* / isolation & purification


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • RNA, Viral