The genetic factors determining the magnitude of the response to exercise training are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with adaptation to exercise training in a cross between FVB/NJ (FVB) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Mice completed an exercise performance test before and after a 4-wk treadmill running program, and changes in exercise capacity, expressed as work (kg.m), were calculated. Changes in work in F(2) mice averaged 1.51 +/- 0.08 kg.m (94.3 +/- 7.3%), with a range of -1.67 to +4.55 kg.m. All F(2) mice (n = 188) were genotyped at 20-cM intervals with 103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and genomewide linkage scans were performed for pretraining, posttraining, and change in work. Significant QTL for pretraining work were located on chromosomes 14 at 4.0 cM [3.72 logarithm of odds (LOD)] and 19 at 34.4 cM (3.63 LOD). For posttraining work significant QTL were located on chromosomes 3 at 60 cM (4.66 LOD) and 14 at 26 cM (4.99 LOD). Suggestive QTL for changes in work were found on chromosomes 11 at 44.6 cM (2.30 LOD) and 14 at 36 cM (2.25 LOD). When pretraining work was used as a covariate, a potential QTL for change in work was identified on chromosome 6 at 68 cM (3.56 LOD). These data indicate that one or more QTL determine exercise capacity and training responses in mice. Furthermore, these data suggest that the genes that determine pretraining work and training responses may differ.