Analysis of drug interactions involving fruit beverages and organic anion-transporting polypeptides

J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;49(12):1403-7. doi: 10.1177/0091270009342251. Epub 2009 Sep 29.


Recently there has been speculation regarding prescription drug interactions with fruit beverages through inhibition of drug uptake transport by organic anion transporter polypeptides (OATPs). A review of clinical trials indicates that grapefruit juice (GFJ), orange juice (OJ), and apple juice can reduce oral bioavailability of fexofenadine, potentially reducing pharmacodynamic effects of fexofenadine. However, the clinical importance of the interaction is not clearly established. The effect is diminished by temporal separation of fruit juice and fexofenadine administration. GFJ and OJ substantially reduce oral bioavailability of celiprolol, a beta-blocker not available in the United States. Beyond these two examples, other meaningful drug interactions with fruit beverages via OATP inhibition are not established at the present time.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Beverages*
  • Biological Availability
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Food-Drug Interactions*
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Organic Anion Transporters / metabolism*
  • Pharmacokinetics*


  • Organic Anion Transporters