Objective: To describe survival outcomes for pediatric patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe myocarditis and identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
Design: Retrospective review of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database.
Setting: Data reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization from 116 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers.
Patients: Patients < or = 18 yrs of age supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for myocarditis during 1995 to 2006.
Measurements and main results: Of 19,348 reported pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 1995 to 2006, 260 runs were for 255 patients with a diagnosis of myocarditis (1.3%). Survival to hospital discharge was 61%. Seven patients (3%) underwent heart transplantation and six patients survived to discharge. Of 100 patients not surviving to hospital discharge, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was withdrawn in 70 (70%) with multiple organ failure as the indication in 58 (83%) patients. In a multivariable model, female gender (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.2), arrhythmia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.1), and renal failure requiring dialysis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.1, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-11.4) were associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality.
Conclusion: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a valuable tool to rescue children with severe cardiorespiratory compromise related to myocarditis. Female gender, arrhythmia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and need for dialysis during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with increased mortality.