Background: A meta-analysis combining results from three genome-wide association studies and followed by large-scale replication identified six novel type 2 diabetes loci. Subsequent studies of the effect of these variants on estimates of the beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity have been inconclusive. We examined these variants located in or near the JAZF1 (rs864745), THADA (rs7578597), TSPAN8 (rs7961581), ADAMTS9 (rs4607103), NOTCH2 (rs10923931) and the CDC123/CAMK1D (rs12779790) genes for associations with measures of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity.
Methodology/results: Oral and intravenous glucose stimulated insulin release (n = 849) and insulin sensitivity (n = 596) estimated from a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were measured in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients from five European populations. Assuming an additive genetic model the diabetes-associated major C-allele of rs4607103 near ADAMTS9 associated with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (p = 0.002) during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. However, following intravenous and oral administration of glucose serum insulin release was increased in individuals with the C-allele (p = 0.003 and p = 0.01, respectively). A meta-analyse combining clamp and IVGTT data from a total of 905 non-diabetic individuals showed that the C-risk allele associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (p = 0.003) and increased insulin release (p = 0.002). The major T-allele of the intronic JAZF1 rs864745 conferring increased diabetes risk was associated with increased 2(nd) phase serum insulin release during an IVGTT (p = 0.03), and an increased fasting serum insulin level (p = 0.001). The remaining variants did not show any associations with insulin response, insulin sensitivity or any other measured quantitative traits.
Conclusion: The present studies suggest that the diabetogenic impact of the C-allele of rs4607103 near ADAMTS9 may in part be mediated through decreased insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues.