Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part I: object-control skill development

Res Q Exerc Sport. 2009 Sep;80(3):533-42. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2009.10599591.


Part I of this study examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on object-control (OC) skill development in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. OC skills were assessed at pretest, posttest, and retention test with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition. A significant Treatment x Time interaction (p < .001) was present, supporting the effectiveness of both OC instructional climates in improving OC skills over time, while the comparison group resulted in no changes. The authors conclude that developmentally and instructionally appropriate climates are beneficial to OC skill learning, along with the need for "planned" movement experiences in motor learning environments.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Learning*
  • Male
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Personal Autonomy*
  • Program Development
  • Program Evaluation
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Social Environment*
  • Socioeconomic Factors