Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Feb;25(2):449-57. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfp510. Epub 2009 Sep 30.


Background: We have reported a new equation (CKD-EPI equation) that reduces bias and improves accuracy for GFR estimation compared to the MDRD study equation while using the same four basic predictor variables: creatinine, age, sex and race. Here, we describe the development and validation of this equation as well as other equations that incorporate diabetes, transplant and weight as additional predictor variables.

Methods: Linear regression was used to relate log-measured GFR (mGFR) to sex, race, diabetes, transplant, weight, various transformations of creatinine and age with and without interactions. Equations were developed in a pooled database of 10 studies [2/3 (N = 5504) for development and 1/3 (N = 2750) for internal validation], and final model selection occurred in 16 additional studies [external validation (N = 3896)].

Results: The mean mGFR was 68, 67 and 68 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2) in the development, internal validation and external validation datasets, respectively. In external validation, an equation that included a linear age term and spline terms in creatinine to account for a reduction in the magnitude of the slope at low serum creatinine values exhibited the best performance (bias = 2.5, RMSE = 0.250) among models using the four basic predictor variables. Addition of terms for diabetes and transplant did not improve performance. Equations with weight showed a small improvement in the subgroup with BMI <20 kg/m(2).

Conclusions: The CKD-EPI equation, based on creatinine, age, sex and race, has been validated and is more accurate than the MDRD study equation. The addition of weight, diabetes and transplant does not significantly improve equation performance.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Body Weight
  • Chronic Disease
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / blood
  • Kidney Diseases / diagnosis
  • Kidney Diseases / physiopathology
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Male
  • Mathematics
  • Middle Aged


  • Creatinine