Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder. Systemic treatment of IBD patients with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibodies has proven to be a highly promising approach, but several drawbacks remain, including side effects related to systemic administration and high cost of treatment. Lactococcus lactis was engineered to secrete monovalent and bivalent murine (m)TNF-neutralizing Nanobodies as therapeutic proteins. These therapeutic proteins are derived from fragments of heavy-chain camelid antibodies and are more stable than conventional antibodies. L. lactis-secreted anti-mTNF Nanobodies neutralized mTNF in vitro. Daily oral administration of Nanobody-secreting L. lactis resulted in local delivery of anti-mTNF Nanobodies at the colon and significantly reduced inflammation in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis. In addition, this approach was also successful in improving established enterocolitis in interleukin 10 (IL10)(-/-) mice. Finally, L. lactis-secreted anti-mTNF Nanobodies did not interfere with systemic Salmonella infection in colitic IL10(-/-) mice.In conclusion, this report details a new therapeutic approach for treatment of chronic colitis, involving in situ secretion of anti-mTNF Nanobodies by orally administered L. lactis bacteria. Therapeutic application of these engineered bacteria could eventually lead to more effective and safer management of IBD in humans.