Event-related potentials in clinical research: guidelines for eliciting, recording, and quantifying mismatch negativity, P300, and N400

Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Nov;120(11):1883-1908. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.07.045. Epub 2009 Sep 30.


This paper describes recommended methods for the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in clinical research and reviews applications to a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Techniques are presented for eliciting, recording, and quantifying three major cognitive components with confirmed clinical utility: mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and N400. Also highlighted are applications of each of the components as methods of investigating central nervous system pathology. The guidelines are intended to assist investigators who use ERPs in clinical research, in an effort to provide clear and concise recommendations and thereby to standardize methodology and facilitate comparability of data across laboratories.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • Event-Related Potentials, P300 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / physiopathology
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*