In previous influenza pandemics, studies of autopsy specimens have shown that most deaths attributed to influenza A virus infection occurred concurrently with bacterial pneumonia, but such evidence has been lacking for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). To help determine the role of bacterial coinfection in the current influenza pandemic, CDC examined postmortem lung specimens from patients with fatal cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) for bacterial causes of pneumonia. During May 1-August 20, 2009, medical examiners and local and state health departments submitted specimens to CDC from 77 U.S. patients with fatal cases of confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). This report summarizes the demographic and clinical findings from these cases and the laboratory evaluation of the specimens. Evidence of concurrent bacterial infection was found in specimens from 22 (29%) of the 77 patients, including 10 caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Duration of illness was available for 17 of the 22 patients; median duration was 6 days (range: 1-25 days). Fourteen of 18 patients for whom information was available sought medical care while ill, and eight (44%) were hospitalized. These findings confirm that bacterial lung infections are occurring among patients with fatal cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and underscore both the importance of pneumococcal vaccination for persons at increased risk for pneumococcal pneumonia and the need for early recognition of bacterial pneumonia in persons with influenza.