G-CSF and GM-CSF as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis

Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009 Oct;5(10):554-9. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2009.178.


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are well-recognized regulators of hematopoiesis and have an established role as growth factors in clinical practice. G-CSF and GM-CSF regulate myeloid cell production, differentiation and activation, and might also be important for driving inflammatory responses. Inappropriate engagement of this pathway could be a critical amplification mechanism when maladaptive immune responses predispose to autoimmunity and sterile tissue inflammation. We postulate that antagonism of G-CSF or GM-CSF could represent a novel therapeutic approach for a variety of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / immunology
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Design
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Inflammation Mediators / therapeutic use
  • Neutrophils / physiology


  • Antirheumatic Agents
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor