Effect of indoor wall climbing on self-efficacy and self-perceptions of children with special needs

Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2009 Jul;26(3):259-73. doi: 10.1123/apaq.26.3.259.


The impact of a six-week indoor wall climbing on the perceptions of self for children with special needs aged 6-12 years was explored. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to the intervention (girls, n = 4; boys, n = 19) and control groups (girls, n = 5; boys, n = 18). Belayers' and children's perceptions of efficacy were measured using specifically designed questionnaires and perceptions of competence and global self-worth were measured using Harter's (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children for participants with an adaptive age of 8 years or higher. Children's self-efficacy and belayers' ratings of children's efficacy improved significantly, t(21) = 3.9, p = .001, d= .84 and F(2, 44) = 30.03, p < .001, respectively. The children's judgments of their athletic and social competence and global self-worth, however, did not change over time or differ from the wait-listed control group (p > .05). These results suggest that it is likely that many experiences that enhance self-efficacy may be needed to improve self-perceptions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Age Factors
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Disabled Persons / psychology*
  • Education, Special*
  • Female
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mountaineering* / psychology
  • Needs Assessment
  • Psychometrics
  • Random Allocation
  • Self Concept
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Self-Assessment*
  • Social Perception*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires