Determination of the soil microbial community structure in rhizosphere of typical tree species in the Loess Plateau can be of great theoretical significance for correctly assessing the characteristics of soil ecological rehabilitation of the Loess Plateau. In this study,spore density analysis, microbial cultivation and BIOLOG were employed to evaluate the AMF spore density and soil microbial community diversity under four tree species with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in ecological rehabilitation area of the Loess Plateau, north Shaanxi Province. The results show that the different tree species differed significantly in both soil microbial number and microbial functional diversity, AMF spore density of Hippophae rhamnoides soil is 2.24 times than that of the Robinia pseudoacacia soil,and the rank as following order: Hippophae rhamnoides > Sophora viciifolia > Caragana microphylla > Robinia pseudoacacia . The statistical significant are detected in the bacteria and actinomyces numbers, however, there is no statistical significance in fungi number among the treatments. The principle component analyses indicates that scatter of Caragana microphylla and Hippophae rhamnoides are smaller than that of Sophora viciifolia and Robinia pseudoacacia, these results suggest that the soil community structure strongly varied among the different tree species. Numbers of carbon sources related to the first two components are 14 and 8. Correlation analysis shows that the AMF spore density appeared extremely significantly and positively correlated with the number of bacteria,and the metabolic of amino acids,amines and aromatic compounds, respectively. Moreover,AMF spore density positively correlated with the average well color development (AWCD), nevertheless, no correlations are found among AMF spore density, carboxylic acids,carbohydrates and polymers. These results suggest that AMF spore density is shown to be an important environmental biology parameter used in correctly assessing the soil bacteria metabolic community and diversity under the tree species in ecological rehabilitation of the Loess Plateau, north Shaanxi Province.