Background: Chronic ulceration, especially in diabetes, remains a substantial clinical problem. Exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is efficacious in the treatment of chronic wound healing in both animal models and patients, but its role in diabetic wounds remains to be explored. Objectives Using a diabetic mouse model, to investigate the role of GM-CSF in wound healing.
Methods: Clinical observation, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and cytokine assays.
Results: There was a significant reduction (50%) in GM-CSF production in the wounds of the diabetics compared with nondiabetics. Exogenous GM-CSF substantially enhanced the wound healing in diabetic mice, accompanied by increased interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. The elevated cytokines correlated with increased neovascularization, and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. GM-CSF showed no beneficial effects in nondiabetic wound healing.
Conclusions: Our results provide useful guidelines for the clinical management of chronic ulceration in diabetes.