The localization of Ca2+ channels relative to the position of transmitter release sites was investigated at the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Ca2+ channels were labeled with fluorescently tagged omega-conotoxin GVIA, an irreversible Ca2+ channel ligand, and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The Ca2+ channel labeling almost perfectly matched that of acetylcholine receptors which were labeled with fluorescent alpha-bung-arotoxin. This indicates that groups of Ca2+ channels are localized exclusively at the active zones of the frog NMJ. Cross sections of NMJs showed that Ca2+ channels are clustered on the presynaptic membrane adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane.