Myo-inositol is involved in several aspects of human reproduction. Elevated concentrations of myo-inositol in human follicular fluids appear to play a positive function in follicular maturity and provide a marker of good quality oocytes. Nevertheless its positive role in PCOS women is a consequence of a defect in the insulin signaling pathway (inositol-containing phosphoglycan mediators) that seems to be primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This article will review the involvement of inositol in female reproduction. After describing the biologic function of inositol and its derivatives, studies are quoted in which the role of inositol in fertility, oogenesis, and polycystic ovary syndrome are examined.