The failure of the inactivated Chlamydia-based vaccine trials in the 1960s has led researchers studying Chlamydia to take cautious and rational approaches to develop safe and effective chlamydial vaccines. Subsequent research efforts focused on three areas. The first is the analysis of the immunobiology of chlamydial infection in animal models, with supporting clinical studies, to identify the immune correlates of both protective immunity and pathological responses. Second, recent radical improvements in genomics, proteomics and associated technologies have assisted in the implementation of creative approaches to search for suitable vaccine candidates. Third, progress in the analysis of host response and adjuvanticity regulating both innate and adaptive immunity at the mucosal site of infection has led to progress in the design of optimal delivery and adjuvant systems for enhancing protective immunity. Considerable progress has been made in the first two areas but research efforts to better define the factors that regulate immunity at mucosal sites of infection and to develop strategies to boost protective immunity via immunomodulation, effective delivery systems and potent adjuvants, have remained elusive. In this article, we will summarize progress in these areas with a focus on chlamydial vaccine antigen discovery, and discuss future directions towards the development of a safe and effective chlamydial vaccine.