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Review
, 62 (1), 127-46

kappa-Opioid Receptor Signaling and Brain Reward Function

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Review

kappa-Opioid Receptor Signaling and Brain Reward Function

Adrie W Bruijnzeel. Brain Res Rev.

Abstract

The dynorphin-like peptides have profound effects on the state of the brain reward system and human and animal behavior. The dynorphin-like peptides affect locomotor activity, food intake, sexual behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and drug intake. Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors, the endogenous receptor for the dynorphin-like peptides, inhibits dopamine release in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen) and induces a negative mood state in humans and animals. The administration of drugs of abuse increases the release of dopamine in the striatum and mediates the concomitant release of dynorphin-like peptides in this brain region. The reviewed studies suggest that chronic drug intake leads to an upregulation of the brain dynorphin system in the striatum and in particular in the dorsal part of the striatum/caudate putamen. This might inhibit drug-induced dopamine release and provide protection against the neurotoxic effects of high dopamine levels. After the discontinuation of chronic drug intake these neuroadaptations remain unopposed which has been suggested to contribute to the negative emotional state associated with drug withdrawal and increased drug intake. kappa-Opioid receptor agonists have also been shown to inhibit calcium channels. Calcium channel inhibitors have antidepressant-like effects and inhibit the release of norepinephrine. This might explain that in some studies kappa-opioid receptor agonists attenuate nicotine and opioid withdrawal symptomatology. A better understanding of the role of dynorphins in the regulation of brain reward function might contribute to the development of novel treatments for mood disorders and other disorders that stem from a dysregulation of the brain reward system.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Role of dynorphin-like peptides in the development of drug addiction. This diagram indicates that drug abuse induces counteradaptive processes such as an increased release of dynorphin in the striatum to limit the effects of drugs of abuse on the brain reward system. Persistent elevated dynorphin levels may lead to a further increase in drug intake (i.e., negative reinforcement) to temporarily diminish the negative mood mediated by dynorphin. The perpetual cycle of negative mood states and drug intake to prevent negative mood states may lead to the development of a drug addiction (i.e., compulsive drug use and loss of control over drug intake).

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