Glucocorticoid Receptor Interacting protein-1 Restores Glucocorticoid Responsiveness in Steroid-Resistant Airway Structural Cells

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;42(1):9-15. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2009-0239RC. Epub 2009 Oct 5.


Glucocorticoid (GC) insensitivity represents a profound challenge in managing patients with asthma. The mutual inhibition of transcriptional activity between GC receptor (GR) and other regulators is one of the mechanisms contributing to GC resistance in asthma. We recently reported that interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 is a novel transcription factor that promotes GC insensitivity in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells by interfering with GR signaling (Tliba et al., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2008;38:463-472). Here, we sought to determine whether the inhibition of GR function by IRF-1 involves its interaction with the transcriptional co-regulator GR-interacting protein 1 (GRIP-1), a known GR transcriptional co-activator. We here found that siRNA-mediated GRIP-1 depletion attenuated IRF-1-dependent transcription of the luciferase reporter construct and the mRNA expression of an IRF-1-dependent gene, CD38. In parallel experiments, GRIP-1 silencing significantly reduced GR-mediated transactivation activities. Co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays showed that GRIP-1, through its repression domain, physically interacts with IRF-1 identifying GRIP-1 as a bona fide transcriptional co-activator for IRF-1. Interestingly, the previously reported inhibition of GR-mediated transactivation activities by either TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma treatment or IRF-1 overexpression was fully reversed by increasing cellular levels of GRIP-1. Together, these data suggest that the cellular accumulation of IRF-1 may represent a potential molecular mechanism mediating altered cellular response to GC through the depletion of GRIP-1 from the GR transcriptional regulatory complexes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1 / biosynthesis
  • Asthma / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Drug Resistance
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Glucocorticoids / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / metabolism*
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2 / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Steroids / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Cytokines
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Steroids
  • Interferon-gamma
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1