The market for antituberculosis drugs is reviewed briefly and an estimate is formed of the potential US market for a new and improved tuberculosis vaccine. By 2010, global sales of all antituberculosis drugs are expected to reach USD 612-670 million annually. An urgent need for better antituberculosis drugs exists that could permit a shorter course and less frequent dosing so that tuberculosis treatment regimens could scale up more rapidly. Should a more effective tuberculosis vaccine become available, there are approximately 18 million high-risk individuals in the USA alone for whom the vaccine would be demonstrably cost-beneficial. The high-risk groups include healthcare workers, military personnel, HIV-infected individuals, migrant farm workers and prisoners.