Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide, is known as a satiating signal expressed in pancreatic beta-cells but not in the brain. In this study, regulations of postpartum mRNA expressions were investigated in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. mRNA levels of lactating dams and mothers whose pups were removed immediately after delivery were compared in microarray experiments. There were 20 genes identified with significantly increased and 14 with decreased expression 9 days postpartum. Amylin mRNA level demonstrated the largest change, a 25.7 times increase. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements validated the increase in the mRNA level of amylin in the preoptic area of lactating dams while the expression level of other members of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family did not change. In situ hybridization histochemistry for amylin further verified its induction in lactating mothers and demonstrated the distribution of amylin mRNA in the medial preoptic nucleus, parts of the medial preoptic area, and the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis but nowhere else in the rat brain. Immunolabeling verified the postpartum induction of amylin in the preoptic area at the peptide level, as well. The results suggest that amylin may play a part in maternal regulations.