Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010 Jan;15(1):37-46. doi: 10.1007/s00775-009-0592-7. Epub 2009 Oct 8.


Copper is an essential but potentially harmful trace element involved in many enzymatic processes that require redox chemistry. Cellular copper homeostasis in mammals is predominantly maintained by posttranslational regulation of copper import and export through the copper import proteins hCTR1 and hCTR2 and the copper exporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Regulation of copper uptake and export is achieved by modulation of transporter expression, copper-dependent and copper-independent trafficking of the different transporters, posttranslational modifications, and interacting proteins. In this review we systematically discuss the contribution of these different mechanisms to the regulation of copper transport.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cation Transport Proteins / chemistry
  • Cation Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Copper / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Protein Transport


  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Copper