Effect of implants on maximum bite force in edentulous patients

J Oral Implantol. 2009;35(4):196-200. doi: 10.1563/1548-1336-35.4.196.

Abstract

One of the main goals of prosthetic dentistry is to reconstruct the masticatory system. Replacing missing teeth by complete or partial denture is associated with decreased bite force and patient satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to measure the maximum bite force (MBF) and to evaluate patients' satisfaction from their conventional complete dentures and their mandibular implant-supported overdentures opposed by complete denture. In this cross sectional analytical descriptive study, seventy-five 45- to 65-year-old patients were divided into 3 groups wearing: (1) conventional complete dentures for up to 6 months; (2) conventional complete dentures for 10 years or more; and (3) complete maxillary dentures opposing mandibular implant-supported overdentures. Bite force was measured by means of electronic bite force measuring device with strain gauges. Three measurements were made on each side on the first molar region and the mean values were recorded. Patient satisfaction was also recorded using questionnaires. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), t test, chi-square, and Pearson correlation test. The mean MBF for the first, the second, and the third group was, respectively, 5.65 +/- 1.46 kgf, 7.01 +/- 2.1 kgf, and 12.22 +/- 27 kgf. The difference between MBF in patients with overdentures and in patients with conventional complete dentures was statistically significant (P = .001). Patient satisfaction with mandibular implant-supported overdentures was recorded as "great." Results indicated MBF in the patients with mandibular implant-supported overdentures was significantly higher than that of patients with conventional complete dentures. This difference may indicate the important role of dental implants in the improvement of bite force and chewing efficiency and therefore patients' satisfaction.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bite Force*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported*
  • Denture Retention
  • Denture, Complete, Lower
  • Denture, Complete, Upper
  • Denture, Overlay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mastication / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth, Edentulous / rehabilitation*
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Transducers

Substances

  • Dental Implants