The impedance threshold device (ITD-7)--a new device for combat casualty care to augment circulation and blood pressure in hypotensive spontaneously breathing warfighters

J Spec Oper Med. 2009 Spring;9(2):49-53. doi: 10.55460/3F1L-5UQF.


Inspiration through -7cm H2O resistance results in an increase in venous blood flow back to the heart and a subsequent increase in cardiac output and blood pressure in hypotensive animals and patients. Breathing through the impedance threshold device with 7cm H2O resistance (ITD-7) also reduces intracranial pressure with each inspiration, thereby providing greater blood flow to the brain. A new device called an ITD-7 was developed to exploit these physiological mechanisms to buy time in hypotensive War Fighters when other therapies are not readily available. Animal and clinical data with the ITD-7 demonstrate the potential value and limitations of this new non-invasive approach to enhancing circulation.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Circulation / physiology*
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Equipment Design
  • Humans
  • Hypotension / physiopathology
  • Hypotension / therapy*
  • Military Medicine
  • Military Personnel*
  • Respiration
  • Time Factors
  • Warfare*
  • Wounds and Injuries / therapy*