A multidrug-resistant (MDR) clone of Plasmodium falciparum (C2A) from Thailand was adapted through serial passage to Aotus monkeys. During adaptation, the parasite showed resistance to a single 20 or 40 mg/kg oral dose of mefloquine (MQ). Infection was only cured when MQ was administered orally at 40 mg/kg once in combination with intravenous artesunic acid at 20 mg/kg for 3 days. Similarly, the parasite clone was found to be resistant to quinine, failing at 20 mg/kg orally for 5 days in combination with an experimental dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor (WR297608) at 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg orally for 3 days, and with atovaquone/proguanil at 25 mg/kg for 3 days. This new model will allow in vivo testing of new antimalarial compounds or their combinations against a currently circulating MDR P. falciparum strain.