Rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are exceptionally high among asylum-seekers. Reportedly, stressors caused by the asylum procedure and psychological consequences of torture contribute to the maintenance of symptoms and interfere with treatment. In a pilot randomized controlled trial, the authors examined the efficacy of trauma-focused treatment in 32 asylum-seekers with PTSD resulting from state-sponsored violence and other traumatic events. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) was compared with treatment as usual (TAU), with a focus on stabilization and psychoactive medication. Six months after treatment, a significant reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms was found in the NET participants but not in the TAU group. Although treatment gains were moderate, these results indicate that NET is a promising approach for the treatment of PTSD in asylum-seekers living in unstable conditions.