Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer mortality. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States encompassing a spectrum of entities marked by hepatic steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. Although simple steatosis follows a generally benign course, the more aggressive form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, can progress to cirrhosis and result in complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A significant number of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma remain cryptogenic without known underlying chronic liver disease. It is increasingly recognized that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis likely accounts for a substantial portion of cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma.