Adipose tissue is now well established as an endocrine organ and multiple hormones termed 'adipokines' are released from it. With the rapidly increasing obese population and the increased risk mortality from prostate cancer within the obese population we looked to investigate the role of the adipokine visfatin in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. Using immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry we demonstrate visfatin expression in LNCaP (androgen-sensitive) and PC3 (androgen-insensitive) human prostate cancer cell lines as well as human prostate cancer tissue. Additionally, we show that visfatin increases PC3 cell proliferation and demonstrate the activation of the MAPKs ERK-1/2 and p38. Moreover we also demonstrate that visfatin promotes the expression and activity of MMP-2/9 which are important proteases involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, suggesting a possible role for visfatin in prostate cancer metastases. These data suggest a contributory and multifunctional role for visfatin in prostate cancer progression, with particular relevance and emphasis in an obese population.