Determinants of vaccine immunity in the cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Switzerland

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Nov;28(11):996-1001. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181a78348.


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at increased risk of infections caused by vaccine preventable pathogens, and specific immunization recommendations have been issued.

Methods: A prospective national multicenter study assessed how these recommendations are followed in Switzerland and how immunization history correlates with vaccine immunity.

Results: Among 87 HIV-infected children (mean age: 11.1 years) followed in the 5 Swiss university hospitals and 1 regional hospital, most (76%) had CD4 T cells >25%, were receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment (79%) and had undetectable viral load (60%). Immunization coverage was lower than in the general population and many lacked serum antibodies to vaccine-preventable pathogens, including measles (54%), varicella (39%), and hepatitis B (65%). The presence of vaccine antibodies correlated most significantly with having an up-to-date immunization history (P<0.05). An up-to-date immunization history was not related to age, immunologic stage, or viremia but to the referral medical center.

Conclusions: All pediatricians in charge of HIV-infected children are urged to identify missing immunizations in this high-risk population.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Switzerland
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*
  • Vaccines / immunology*
  • Viral Load
  • Young Adult


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Vaccines