Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (EC 188.8.131.52) (UGTs) are major phase II metabolism enzymes that detoxify a multitude of endo- and xenobiotics through the covalent addition of a glucuronic acid moiety. UGTs are promiscuous enzymes that regulate the levels of numerous important endobiotics in a range of tissues, and inactivate most therapeutic compounds in concert with phase I enzymes. In spite of the importance of these enzymes, we have only a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing their substrate specificity and catalytic activity. Until recently, no three-dimensional structural information was available for any mammalian UGT. The 1.8-å resolution apo crystal structure of the UDP-glucuronic acid binding domain of human UGT2B7 (2B7CT) is the only structure of a mammalian UGT target determined to date. In this review, we summarize what has been learned about human UGT function from the analysis of this and other related glycosyltransferase (GT) crystal structures.