Objective: The goal was to study exogenous surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) kinetics in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who were treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg porcine surfactant.
Methods: Sixty-one preterm infants with RDS undergoing mechanical ventilation received, within 24 hours after birth, 100 mg/kg (N = 40) or 200 mg/kg (N = 21) porcine surfactant mixed with [U-(13)C]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Clinical and respiratory parameters were recorded, and DSPC half-life and pool size and endogenous DSPC synthesis rate were calculated.
Results: Clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes did not differ between groups. In the 100 mg/kg group, 28 infants (70%) received a second dose after 25 +/- 11 hours and 9 (22.5%) a third dose after 41 +/- 11 hours; in the 200 mg/kg group, 6 infants (28.6%) received a second dose after 33 +/- 8 hours and 1 a third dose. The DSPC half-life was longer in the 200 mg/kg group (first dose: 32 +/- 19 vs 15 +/- 15 hours [P = .002]; second dose: 43 +/- 32 vs 21 +/- 13 hours [P = .025]). DSPC synthesis rates and pool sizes before the first and second doses did not differ between the groups. The 200 mg/kg group exhibited a greater reduction in the oxygenation index than did the 100 mg/kg group after the first (P = .009) and second (P = .018) doses.
Conclusions: Porcine surfactant given to preterm infants with RDS at a dose of 200 mg/kg resulted in a longer DSPC half-life, fewer retreatments, and better oxygenation index values.