Xyloglucans of monocotyledons have diverse structures

Mol Plant. 2009 Sep;2(5):943-65. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssp061. Epub 2009 Aug 20.


Except in the Poaceae, little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary walls of monocotyledons. Xyloglucan structures in a range of monocotyledon species were examined. Wall preparations were isolated, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-->4)-beta-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide profiles of the non-commelinid monocotyledons were similar to those of most eudicotyledons, indicating the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, with a XXXG a core motif and the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. An exception was Lemna minor (Araceae), which yielded no fucosylated oligosaccharides and had both XXXG and XXGn core motifs. Except for the Arecales (palms) and the Dasypogonaceae, which had fucogalactoxyloglucans, the xyloglucans of the commelinid monocotyledons were structurally different. The Zingiberales and Commelinales had xyloglucans with both XXGn and XXXG core motifs; small proportions of XXFG units, but no XLFG units, were present. In the Poales, the Poaceae had xyloglucans with a XXGn core motif and no fucosylated units. In the other Poales families, some had both XXXG and XXGn core motifs, others had only XXXG; XXFG units were present, but XLFG units were not.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carbohydrate Sequence
  • Cell Wall / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  • Glucans / chemistry*
  • Magnoliopsida / chemistry*
  • Magnoliopsida / classification
  • Magnoliopsida / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Xylans / chemistry*


  • Glucans
  • Xylans
  • xyloglucan