Analysis of transcriptome changes induced by Ptr ToxA in wheat provides insights into the mechanisms of plant susceptibility

Mol Plant. 2009 Sep;2(5):1067-83. doi: 10.1093/mp/ssp045. Epub 2009 Jul 7.


To obtain greater insight into the molecular events underlying plant disease susceptibility, we studied transcriptome changes induced by a host-selective toxin of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Ptr ToxA (ToxA), on its host plant, wheat. Transcriptional profiling of ToxA-treated leaves of a ToxA-sensitive wheat cultivar was performed using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. An improved and up-to-date annotation of the wheat microarray was generated and a new tool for array data analysis (BRAT) was developed, and both are available for public use via a web-based interface. Our data indicate that massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to ToxA treatment, including cellular responses typically associated with defense. In addition, this study supports previous results indicating that ToxA-induced cell death is triggered by impairment of the photosynthetic machinery and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Based on results of this study, we propose that ToxA acts as both an elicitor and a virulence factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Fungal Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / genetics
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / genetics
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / physiology
  • Mycotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Triticum / drug effects*
  • Triticum / genetics
  • Triticum / metabolism*


  • Fungal Proteins
  • Mycotoxins
  • TOXA protein, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis