The effects of 6-week training programs on throwing accuracy, proprioception, and core endurance in baseball

J Sport Rehabil. 2009 Aug;18(3):407-26. doi: 10.1123/jsr.18.3.407.


Context: With a limited number of outcomes-based studies, only recommendations for strength-training and rehabilitation programs can be made.

Objective: To determine the extent to which throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception improved after completion of a 6-week training program that included open kinetic chain (OKC), closed kinetic chain (CKC), and/or core-stability exercises.

Design: A 2 x 3 factorial design.

Setting: Division III college.

Participants: 19 healthy baseball athletes with a control group of 15.

Interventions: Two 6-week programs including OKC, CKC, and core-stabilization exercises that were progressed each week.

Main outcome measures: Functional throwing-performance index, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test, back-extensor test, 45 degrees abdominal-fatigue test, and right- and left-side bridging test.

Results: There was no significant difference between groups. An increase was evident in all pretest-to-posttest results, with improvement ranging from 1.36% to 140%.

Conclusion: Both of the 6-week training programs could be used to increase throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception in baseball.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Baseball / physiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Exercise Test
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Physical Endurance / physiology*
  • Proprioception*
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • Time Factors
  • Upper Extremity / physiology*