Prognostic factors for dogs with mammary inflammatory carcinoma: 43 cases (2003-2008)

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Oct 15;235(8):967-72. doi: 10.2460/javma.235.8.967.


Objective: To describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of dogs with inflammatory carcinoma (IC) and identify patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors associated with overall survival time.

Design: Retrospective case series.

Animals: 43 client-owned dogs.

Procedures: Records of dogs with a clinical diagnosis of IC that had histologic evidence of dermal lymphatic invasion were reviewed. Data on clinical staging, treatment, toxicoses, response, and survival time were retrieved. Results-26 (60%) dogs had primary IC and 17 (40%) had secondary IC. Thirty-five (81%) dogs had distant metastases and 2 (5%) had local metastases at the time of initial examination. Six of 29 (21%) dogs had a coagulopathy. Sixteen (37%) dogs did not receive specific treatment for IC, 24 (56%) received medical treatment only, 2 (5%) underwent surgical excision and received medical treatment, and 1 (2%) underwent surgical excision only. Forty-one (95%) dogs had progressive disease, and 2 (5%) had stable disease. Mean survival time for all dogs was 60 days (range, 1 to 300 days). Dogs with a coagulopathy survived a significantly shorter time than did dogs without a coagulopathy (odds ratio, 0.28), and dogs that received medical treatment survived significantly longer than dogs that did not (odds ratio, 2.54).

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results suggested that mammary IC is a biologically aggressive condition in dogs associated with a guarded prognosis. In addition, results suggested that medical treatment may improve outcome, thereby supporting its use in dogs with IC.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma / pathology
  • Carcinoma / veterinary*
  • Dog Diseases / pathology*
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / drug therapy
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / mortality
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology*
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / surgery
  • Survival Rate


  • Antineoplastic Agents