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, 31 (4), 677-89

The Key Role of Segmented Filamentous Bacteria in the Coordinated Maturation of Gut Helper T Cell Responses

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The Key Role of Segmented Filamentous Bacteria in the Coordinated Maturation of Gut Helper T Cell Responses

Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau et al. Immunity.

Abstract

Microbiota-induced cytokine responses participate in gut homeostasis, but the cytokine balance at steady-state and the role of individual bacterial species in setting the balance remain elusive. Herein, systematic analysis of gnotobiotic mice indicated that colonization by a whole mouse microbiota orchestrated a broad spectrum of proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and regulatory T cell responses whereas most tested complex microbiota and individual bacteria failed to efficiently stimulate intestinal T cell responses. This function appeared the prerogative of a restricted number of bacteria, the prototype of which is the segmented filamentous bacterium, a nonculturable Clostridia-related species, which could largely recapitulate the coordinated maturation of T cell responses induced by the whole mouse microbiota. This bacterium, already known as a potent inducer of mucosal IgA, likely plays a unique role in the postnatal maturation of gut immune functions. Changes in the infant flora may thus influence the development of host immune responses.

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