Innate and adaptive immune responses regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)

Trends Immunol. 2010 Jan;31(1):24-31. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2009 Oct 14.


In just a few years, the view of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) has been transformed from an obscure enzyme seldom encountered in the immune literature to one implicated in an improbably large number of roles. GSK3 is a crucial regulator of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in both the periphery and the central nervous system, so that GSK3 inhibitors such as lithium can diminish inflammation. GSK3 influences T-cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Many effects stem from GSK3 regulation of critical transcription factors, such as NF-kappaB, NFAT and STATs. These discoveries led to the rapid application of GSK3 inhibitors to animal models of sepsis, arthritis, colitis, multiple sclerosis and others, demonstrating their potential for therapeutic intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity*
  • Animals
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / immunology*
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Lithium / pharmacology
  • Signal Transduction


  • Lithium
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3