Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

Appetite. 2010 Feb;54(1):163-9. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.10.003. Epub 2009 Oct 27.


Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Appetite / drug effects
  • Appetite / physiology*
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Bread*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Denmark
  • Edible Grain*
  • Energy Intake / drug effects
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects
  • Postprandial Period / physiology
  • Reference Values
  • Satiety Response / drug effects
  • Triticum*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose