Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 is a member of the S9b serine protease family, which also includes DPP8 and DPP9. DPP4 cleaves a number of regulatory factors, including chemokines and growth factors. DPP4 inhibitors have recently emerged as an effective treatment option for type 2 diabetes. Early in vitro studies demonstrated that DPP4 inhibitors inhibit T-cell proliferation and cytokine production, leading to their investigation in numerous pre-clinical models of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Recent data suggest that the early DPP4-specific inhibitors might also bind DPP8 and DPP9, thus exerting their effects through non-specific binding. This review highlights recent insights into the applicability of DPP inhibitors as novel pharmacological agents for inflammatory disease.