Distant metastases are the underlying cause of patient mortality in an overwhelming majority of human carcinomas. Certain microRNAs have recently been found capable of regulating the process of tumor metastasis. In this review, we highlight advances within this rapidly emerging field, endeavor to connect known microRNA pathways with recent conceptual advances in the larger field of metastasis research, and speculate regarding the future utility of microRNAs in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Assessed collectively, current evidence suggests that the pleiotropic activities of microRNAs endow them with the capacity to function as crucial, yet previously unappreciated, nodes within already-identified metastasis regulatory circuitry. This has important implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of high-grade malignancies.