Objective: To examine usual marine omega-3 fatty acid (mO-3FA) intake in individuals with diabetes; its association with adiposity, lipid, and glucose control; and its changes with behavioral lifestyle intervention for weight loss.
Research design and methods: Cross-sectional and 1-year longitudinal analyses were performed on 2,397 Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) participants. Look AHEAD is a cardiovascular outcome trial evaluating the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Results: Baseline mO-3FA intake was 162 +/- 138 mg/day. It was inversely associated with triglycerides (beta = -0.41, P < 0.001) and weakly with HDL (beta = 4.14, P = 0.050), after multiple covariate adjustment. One-year mO-3FA and fried/sandwich fish intake decreased with intensive lifestyle intervention (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: mO-3FA intake in Look AHEAD participants was low but associated favorably with lipids. These results encourage investigation on the potential benefits of increasing mO-3FA intake in lifestyle interventions for weight loss in individuals with diabetes.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00017953.