Feasibility of a day-camp model of modified constraint-induced movement therapy with and without botulinum toxin A injection for children with hemiplegia

Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2009;29(3):311-33. doi: 10.1080/01942630903011123.


The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of modified constraint-induced (CI) therapy provided in a 2-week day-camp model with and without intramuscular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections for children with congenital cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with congenital hemiplegia, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level I and II, aged 8-17 years, participated in a CI therapy day camp; of whom five participants (aged 11-16 years) received intramuscular BoNT-A prior to CI therapy. Assessments were conducted 4 months and 2 weeks before (baselines 1 and 2), immediately after, and 6 months after the day camp. For the children who received BoNT-A, no statistical analyses were conducted due to the small size of the sample. In this group, consistent improvement was only found according to the Melbourne Unilateral Limb Assessment. The children who received only the CI therapy demonstrated improvements in the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (p =. 04) at posttest, but improvements were not sustained at 6-month follow-up. No significant improvement was obtained for the Melbourne Assessment or the Assisting Hand Assessment. Children in both groups improved on specially trained tasks: frisbee golf, stacking blocks, and in-hand manipulation. Feedback from the participants suggests that the day-camp model is a feasible intervention following intramuscular BoNT-A injections. The results suggest that children with congenital hemiplegia with varying severity of impairment in hand function may benefit from CI therapy, but not every child demonstrates improvements in hand function. The characteristics of children who respond the best to CI therapy are not clear.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use*
  • Cerebral Palsy / complications
  • Cerebral Palsy / rehabilitation*
  • Child
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Day Care, Medical
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hand Strength*
  • Hemiplegia / etiology
  • Hemiplegia / rehabilitation*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Program Evaluation
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Restraint, Physical*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Upper Extremity


  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A