Regulation of GPR54 signaling by GRK2 and {beta}-arrestin

Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Dec;23(12):2060-74. doi: 10.1210/me.2009-0013. Epub 2009 Oct 21.


Kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, are major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as regulators of human placentation and tumor metastases. GPR54 is a G(q/11)-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and activation by kisspeptin stimulates phosphatidy linositol 4, 5-biphosphate hydrolysis, Ca(2+) mobilization, arachidonic acid release, and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation. Physiological evidence suggests that GPR54 undergoes agonist-dependent desensitization, but underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Furthermore, very little has been reported on the early events that regulate GPR54 signaling. The lack of information in these important areas led to this study. Here we report for the first time on the role of GPCR serine/threonine kinase (GRK)2 and beta-arrestin in regulating GPR54 signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, a model cell system for studying the molecular regulation of GPCRs, and genetically modified MDA MB-231 cells, an invasive breast cancer cell line expressing about 75% less beta-arrestin-2 than the control cell line. Our study reveals that in HEK 293 cells, GPR54 is expressed both at the plasma membrane and intracellularly and also that plasma membrane expression is regulated by cytoplasmic tail sequences. We also demonstrate that GPR54 exhibits constitutive activity, internalization, and association with GRK2 and beta- arrestins-1 and 2 through sequences in the second intracellular loop and cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. We also show that GRK2 stimulates the desensitization of GPR54 in HEK 293 cells and that beta-arrestin-2 mediates GPR54 activation of ERK1/2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. The significance of these findings in developing molecular-based therapies for treating certain endocrine-related disorders is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arrestins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism*
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 / genetics
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Kisspeptins
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Oligopeptides / pharmacology
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Phosphorylation / genetics
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Transport / drug effects
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Kisspeptin-1
  • Signal Transduction* / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction* / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • beta-Arrestin 2
  • beta-Arrestins


  • ARRB2 protein, human
  • Arrestins
  • KISS1 protein, human
  • KISS1R protein, human
  • Kisspeptins
  • Oligopeptides
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Receptors, Kisspeptin-1
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • beta-Arrestin 2
  • beta-Arrestins
  • GRK2 protein, human
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2