In diabetes, hyperglycemia and the associated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and AGE-modified low density lipoproteins (AGE-LDL) can directly affect the cells of the vascular wall. We hypothesize that AGE-LDL may act directly and induce oxidant and inflammatory alterations in human endothelial cells (HEC), this effect being amplified by high glucose. To test this assumption, the activity of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) was evaluated and the expression of its subunits (p22(phox), NOX4, and p67(phox)), of the AGE receptor (RAGE), and of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot in confluent EA.hy926 cells incubated with AGE-LDL for 24 and 48h, in normal and high glucose conditions. Exposure of HEC for 48h to AGE-LDL in 5mM glucose induced an increase of RAGE expression (50%), NADPHox activity (107%), p22(phox) and NOX4 mRNA (50% and 188%, respectively) and MCP-1 expression (80%). AGE-LDL-stimulated p22(phox) expression by activating p38 MAP kinase and NF-kB, and MCP-1 expression by activating NF-kB, as demonstrated by the use of specific inhibitors (SB203580 and Bay11-7085). The addition of 25mM glucose in the culture medium enhanced the effect of AGE-LDL, but also of nLDL, on RAGE, p22(phox), NOX4, p67(phox), and MCP-1 gene expression. In conclusion, AGE-LDL induce an oxidative stress and a pro-inflammatory state in human endothelial cells. Both AGE-LDL and nLDL in the presence of high glucose amplify their effect, revealing a link between hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and endothelial cell dysfunction.