Peripheral vascular damage in systemic lupus erythematosus: data from LUMINA, a large multi-ethnic U.S. cohort (LXIX)

Lupus. 2009 Dec;18(14):1303-8. doi: 10.1177/0961203309105877. Epub 2009 Oct 22.


To determine the factors associated with peripheral vascular damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and its impact on survival from Lupus in Minorities, Nature versus Nurture, a longitudinal US multi-ethnic cohort. Peripheral vascular damage was defined by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI). Factors associated with peripheral vascular damage were examined by univariable and multi-variable logistic regression models and its impact on survival by a Cox multi-variable regression. Thirty-four (5.3%) of 637 patients (90% women, mean [SD] age 36.5 [12.6] [16-87] years) developed peripheral vascular damage. Age and the SDI (without peripheral vascular damage) were statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.08; P = 0.0107 and OR = 1.30, 95% CI 0.09-1.56; P = 0.0043, respectively) in multi-variable analyses. Azathioprine, warfarin and statins were also statistically significant, and glucocorticoid use was borderline statistically significant (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.10-1.06; P = 0.0975). In the survival analysis, peripheral vascular damage was independently associated with a diminished survival (hazard ratio = 2.36; 95% CI 1.07-5.19; P = 0.0334). In short, age was independently associated with peripheral vascular damage, but so was the presence of damage in other organs (ocular, neuropsychiatric, renal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, musculoskeletal and integument) and some medications (probably reflecting more severe disease). Peripheral vascular damage also negatively affected survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / ethnology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases / ethnology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Whites / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult