Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains one of the leading causes of death in the United States and other industrialized nations. A better understanding of modifiable risk factors for CHD is critical in order to effectively prevent this disease. Dietary factors known to influence the risk of CHD include saturated fats, trans-fats, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although higher plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary disease and lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the relation between dietary cholesterol and the risk of CHD is not clearly understood. This article reviews the current evidence on the association between dietary cholesterol and the risk of CHD.