Benzimidazole carbamate residues in milk: Detection by Surface Plasmon Resonance-biosensor, using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method for extraction

Anal Chim Acta. 2009 Nov 10;654(2):111-9. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2009.09.028. Epub 2009 Sep 26.


A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor screening assay was developed and validated to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamate (BZT) veterinary drug residues in milk. The polyclonal antibody used was raised in sheep against a methyl 5(6)-[(carboxypentyl)-thio]-2-benzimidazole carbamate protein conjugate. A sample preparation procedure was developed using a modified QuEChERS method. BZT residues were extracted from milk using liquid extraction/partition with a dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up step. The assay was validated in accordance with the performance criteria described in 2002/657/EC. The limit of detection of the assay was calculated from the analysis of 20 known negative milk samples to be 2.7mugkg(-1). The detection capability (CCbeta) of the assay was determined to be 5mugkg(-1) for 11 benzimidazole residues and the mean recovery of analytes was in the range 81-116%. A comparison was made between the SPR-biosensor and UPLC-MS/MS analyses of milk samples (n=26) taken from cows treated different benzimidazole products, demonstrating the SPR-biosensor assay to be fit for purpose.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics / analysis*
  • Anthelmintics / chemistry
  • Anthelmintics / isolation & purification
  • Antibodies / immunology
  • Antibodies / metabolism
  • Benzimidazoles / analysis*
  • Benzimidazoles / chemistry
  • Benzimidazoles / isolation & purification
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Carbamates / chemistry*
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Sheep
  • Solid Phase Extraction
  • Surface Plasmon Resonance / methods*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Anthelmintics
  • Antibodies
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Carbamates
  • benzimidazole