Cranial and postcranial skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation

Pathophysiology. 2010 Jun;17(3):169-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.10.002. Epub 2009 Oct 24.


This study focuses on foetal development following mild daily exposure of pregnant mice to near field electromagnetic radiation emitted by a mobile phone. The investigation was motivated by the fact that the potentially hazardous electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones is currently of tremendous public interest. Physically comparable pregnant mice were exposed to radiofrequency radiation GSM 900MHz emitted by a mobile phone. Within 5h after birth most cubs were fixed followed by double staining in toto, and conventional paraffin histology. Other cubs remained with their mothers until teeth eruption. Structural development was assessed by examining newborns for the presence of anomalies and/or variations in soft tissues and skeletal anatomy. Electromagnetic radiofrequency exposed newborns, externally examined, displayed a normal phenotype. Histochemical and histological studies, however, revealed variations in the exposed foetuses with respect to control ones concerning the ossification of cranial bones and thoracic cage ribs, as well as displacement of Meckelian cartilage. Littermates examined after teeth eruption displayed normal phenotypes. It is concluded that mild exposure to mobile phone radiation may affect, although transiently, mouse foetal development at the ossification level. The developmental variations observed could be explained by considering the different embryonic origin and mode of ossification of the affected skeletal elements.