Added soluble fiber enhances the satiating power of low-energy-density liquid yogurts

J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Nov;109(11):1862-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.08.018.


Background: Low-energy-density foods with high satiating power may be useful tools for weight management. Energy density of yogurts can range from 0.4 to 1.8 kcal/g.

Objective: To test the effects of added inulin, a soluble fiber, on the satiating properties of low-energy-density and high-energy-density yogurt beverages (16 oz or 472 mL).

Design: The study followed a within-subject preload design with repeated measures. Each participant completed six conditions, presented in a counterbalanced order.

Subjects: Participants were 18 men and 20 women, aged 18 to 35 years.

Intervention: The experimental conditions were two high-energy-density yogurt beverages (440 kcal; 0.9 kcal/g) and two low-energy-density yogurt beverages (180 kcal; 0.4 kcal/g) with or without inulin (6 g) and an equal volume of orange juice (180 kcal). A no beverage control condition was used as well.

Main outcome measures: Repeated ratings of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat and energy consumption at the lunch meal served 120 minutes post-ingestion were the main measures.

Statistical analyses performed: Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to analyze motivational ratings and energy and nutrient intakes at the test meal.

Results: Yogurt beverages and liquid orange juice significantly suppressed appetite and promoted satiety relatively to the no beverage condition. Yogurt beverages had greater satiating power than did orange juice, as evidenced by higher satiety ratings and reduced energy intakes at lunch. The satiating power of low-energy-density yogurt with inulin was comparable to that of high-energy-density yogurt.

Conclusions: Energy presented in liquid form can have satiating power. Added fiber can potentiate the satiating properties of low-energy-density liquid yogurts. Adding fiber to low-energy-density foods may be an effective way to suppress appetite and control food intake.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Beverages
  • Citrus sinensis
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fiber / pharmacology*
  • Energy Intake / drug effects
  • Energy Intake / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inulin / administration & dosage
  • Inulin / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Nutritive Value
  • Obesity / diet therapy
  • Obesity / prevention & control
  • Satiation / drug effects*
  • Satiation / physiology
  • Solubility
  • Yogurt*
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Inulin